The power sources used by modern robotics systems are hydraulic, pneumatic, and electrical. Robots are now mostly powered by electric motors since they are getting smaller and have a higher power-to-weight ratio.

Of course, depending on what they are used for, different components make up robots. For instance, the term “end effector” is used in the industry to describe a robot’s hand. End effectors can be more general-purpose grippers or more specialist instruments like spot welders or spray cannons. Fingered and vacuum grippers are popular choices. The sensor is yet another crucial component of robotics control technology. A robotic system learns about its surroundings through sensors, allowing it to modify its behaviours moving forward. Using sensors, a robot may inspect things, monitor good operation, and adapt to changes in the position of objects to be picked up (although some robots are able to adjust to variations in object placement without the use of sensors, provided they have sufficient end effector flexibility). Visual, force and torque, speed and acceleration, tactile, and distance sensors are among the significant sensor kinds. Most industrial robots use straightforward binary sensing, which is comparable to an on/off switch. This prevents the robot from receiving sophisticated feedback on how successfully an operation was carried out. The employment of guides and fixtures to control a robot’s motions throughout an operation is frequently necessary due to inadequate input, which suggests a significant lack of flexibility in modifying activities.

Robots can be guided or have off-line programming done to them. The former approach is used to train the majority of industrial robots. This entails physically directing a robot through the many stages of an operation, with each point being saved in the robotic control system. Off-line programming uses computer commands to define an operation’s key points. Off-line programming at the manipulator level is what this is known as. The development of off-line programming using higher-level languages, in which robotic behaviours are determined by tasks or objectives, is a significant area of research.

Robots can be designed to follow a predetermined continuous path rather than moving from one place to another. Operations such as spray painting or arc welding a curved joint require continuous route control. A robot must be synced with the other robots or automated machinery with which it is interacting throughout programming. As a result, more centralised control systems are typically interfaced with robot control systems.